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Jonathan's Space Report 
No. 711 draft                                                 2015 Mar 20     Somerville, MA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

JSR 710 is now permalinked at http://planet4589.org/space/jsr/back/news.710


International Space Station
---------------------------

Expedition 43 continues under the command of Terry Virts, with
FE-3 Anton Shkaplerov and FE-4 Samantha Cristoforetti joined by
Gennadiy Padalka, Mikhail Kornienko and Scott Kelly after the TMA-16M (flight 42S)
docking. 

Soyuz TMA-16M was launched on Mar 27, docking with the Poisk module 5h50m after launch.
Soyuz TMA-15M is docked at Rassvet; Progress M-25M is docked at Pirs and
Progress M-26M at Zvezda. 


Galileo
--------


The European Commission's GalileoSat-7 and 8 (ESA designation Galileo FOC FM03 and FM04)
were launched on Mar 27 by a Soyuz/Fregat.

Arirang-3A
----------

South Korea's Arirang-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) imaging satellite was launched on a Kosmotras Dnepr
from a silo at the Yasniy missile base in Russia on Mar 25.

IGS O-5
-------

The Information Gathering Satellite Optical-5 was launched on Mar 26 from Japan.
The spy satellite is operated by the Japanese government.

GPS IIF-9
---------

GPS flight IIF-9, space vehicle SVN71, nicknamed Deneb, was launched on Mar 25 by
a Delta 4 into a 12-hour-period orbit.

IRNSS-1D
--------

The 4th Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System payload was launched on Mar 28.
The 1425 kg satellite will join its three siblings in GEO.



Debunking PASCAL-B
-------------------

Following on from the previous issue's discussion of the Zwicky Pellets,
by popular demand (i.e. one guy who asked) this time I tackle the internet
story that goes 'we launched a manhole cover into solar orbit'. 

On 1957 Aug 27 at 2235 UTC, at area U3d of the Nevada Test Site (http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Plumbob.html)
the PASCAL-B Pu-fission/HE device was detonated with a yield of 0.3 kT. The test was carried out in an underground
shaft sealed  with a 900 kg, 1.2 m dia 0.1m thick steel cap. According to test scientist Bob Brownlee, calculations showed
that the cap left the silo travelling vertically at about 60 km/s, much higher than Earth escape velocity.
Although Brownlee did not claim the cap would actually escape Earth, the story has been exaggerated to
claim the cap might be in solar orbit.  

However, a simple calculation shows that even ignoring ablation, heat transfer and gravity,
the effects of atmospheric drag in the lower atmosphere would slow the cap below escape velocity
before it reached 2 km altitude (and then essentially stop it well within the atmosphere).
So, PASCAL-B did not reach space. I encourage readers with expertise in ablation hydro or supernova shocks
to perform the relevant calculations, but I assume the cap was shredded and melted so that no macroscopic
debris fell back to the ground. The initial kinetic energy of the cap was 3 terajoules. If you convert all that
energy to thermal and share it among 900 kg of Fe atoms (ignoring the fact that we heat the air too)
I get a temperature of about 20 million K. That's certainly an overestimate but indicates that
plenty of energy is available to vaporise the material.

More detail on my toy calculation: 
1) From NewtonII and the ram pressure formula,  F = ma = - rho A v^2 - g. 
2) The atmospheric pressure gradient is dp/dz = rho g.
3) dv/dp = dv/dt * dt/dz * dz/dp = ( a / v ) ( 1 / rho g )
4) Hence dv/dp =  ( rho A v^2 + g ) / ( m v rho g )
Neglecting the gravity term gives us
5)  dv/dp = A v / ( m g ),  so
6)  v = v(0) exp( - ( A / m g ) (p - p(0)))




Table of Recent (orbital) Launches 
 ----------------------------------
Date UT       Name            Launch Vehicle        Site            Mission       INTL.   Catalog  Perigee Apogee  Incl   Notes
                                                                                                      km      km   deg

Mar  2 0125   Flock 1b-21  )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Imaging       98-67FQ S40427    395 x    402 x  51.7
              Flock 1b-22  )                                         Imaging       98-67FR S40428    395 x    402 x  51.7
Mar  2 0350   ABS-3A           ) Falcon 9 v1.1      Canaveral SLC40  Comms           10A   S40424    358 x  63319 x  24.8
              Eutel.115 West B )                                     Comms           10B   S40425    360 x  63379 x  24.8
Mar  2 0845   Flock 1b-9   )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Imaging       98-67FS S40429    392 x    407 x  51.6
              Flock 1b-10  )                                         Imaging       98-67FT S40430    398 x    413 x  51.6
Mar  3 0300   Flock 1d'-1  )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Imaging       98-67FU S40451    393 x    405 x  51.6
              Flock 1d'-2  )                                         Imaging       98-67FV S40452    393 x    406 x  51.6
Mar  3 1050   Flock 1b-5   )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Imaging       98-67FW S40453    394 x    407 x  51.6
              Flock 1b-6   )                                         Imaging       98-67FX S40454    392 x    407 x  51.6
Mar  4 0120   TechEdSat-4  )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Tech          98-67FY S40455    393 x    402 x  51.6
              GEARRSat     )                                         Comms         98-67FZ S40456    395 x    404 x  51.6
Mar  4 0830   MicroMAS     )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Sci           98-67GA S40457    393 x    406 x  51.6
              LambdaSat    )                                         Tech/Comms    98-67GB S40458    393 x    405 x  51.6
Mar  5 0145   Flock 1b-11  )                        ISS Kibo, LEO    Imaging       98-67GC S40459    395 x    405 x  51.6
              Flock 1b-12  )                                         Imaging       98-67GD S40460    395 x    405 x  51.6
Mar 13 0244   MMS 1 )             Atlas V 421       Canaveral SLC41  Sci             11A   S40482    559 x  70130 x  28.9
              MMS 2 )                                                Sci             11B   S40483    554 x  70159 x  28.9
              MMS 3 )                                                Sci             11C   S40484    554 x  70174 x  28.9
              MMS 4 )                                                Sci             11D   S40485    554 x  70190 x  28.9
Mar 18 2205   Ekspress AM-7       Proton-M/Briz-M   Baykonur LC200/39 Comms          12A   S40505   5406 x  35752 x  19.9
Mar 25 1836   GPS SVN 71          Delta 4M+(4,2)    Canaveral SLC37  Nav             13A
Mar 25 2208   Arirang-3A          Dnepr             Yasniy Sh370/13  Imaging         14A
Mar 26 0121   IGS Optical 5       H-IIA 202         Tanegashima      Imaging         15A
Mar 27 1942   Soyuz TMA-16M       Soyuz-FG          Baykonur LC1     Spaceship       16A
Mar 27 2146   GalileoSat-7 )      Soyuz ST-B/Fregat CSG ELS          Nav             17A
              GalileoSat-8 )                                         Nav             17B
Mar 28 1149   IRNSS-1D            PSLV-XL           Sriharikota      Nav             18A

Table of Recent (suborbital) Launches
----------------------------------

The US Air Force Global Strike Command launched a Minuteman 3 ICBM from Vandenberg
on a regular test of the system. Test GT214GM carried a single reentry vehicle which
splashed down in the ocean near Guam. Minuteman tests usually aim their reentry vehicle
at Kwajalein Atoll although, since 2006, occasional flights to test the missile's
maximum range have used the Guam target area instead.



Date UT     Payload/Flt Name  Launch Vehicle  Site                   Mission    Apogee/km

Mar  1 2133   RV               Hwasong 6?          Nampo, N Korea   Test          134
Mar  1 2141   RV               Hwasong 6?          Nampo, N Korea   Test          134
Mar  5 0144   WADIS 2          VS-30               Andoya           Atm.Sci       126
Mar  9        RV               Shaheen 3           Somniani?        Test          500? 
Mar 18        RV               Rubezh              Kapustin Yar     Test         1000?
Mar 23 1036   Mk 21 RV?        Minuteman 3         Vandenberg LF10  Test         1300?

.-------------------------------------------------------------------------.
|  Jonathan McDowell                 |                                    |
|  Somerville MA 02143               |  inter : planet4589 at gmail       |
|  USA                               |  twitter: @planet4589              |
|                                                                         |
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